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Git Version Control system-With Commands

Git Installation Guide  Install Git -On Ubuntu  Step1 : Update apt repository.             apt-get update Step2 : Install git            apt...

Git Installation Guide

 Install Git -On Ubuntu 

Step1: Update apt repository.

            apt-get update

Step2: Install git

           apt install git -y

 Install Git -On CentOS/RedHat OS

Step1: Update yum repository.

            yum update -y

Step2: Install git

           yum install git -y

Why Version Control is required


Let's consider a situation where the developer is working on a web-based project and the Client reviews the changes and approves or rejects the changes.






Issue Without Version Control System


Once Saved, all the changes made to the files are permanent and can not be rolled back.
No track record of what was saved, what was removed etc.

With Version Control system




Version Control System

A version control system is a kind of software that helps the developer team to efficiently communicate and manage(track) all the changes that have been made to the source code along with the information like who made and what change has been made.

Local Version Control Systems

Many people’s version-control method of choice is to copy files into another directory (perhaps a time-stamped directory, if they’re clever). This approach is very common because it is so simple, but it is also incredibly error prone. It is easy to forget which directory you’re in and accidentally write to the wrong file or copy over files you don’t mean to.

To deal with this issue, programmers long ago developed local VCSs that had a simple database that kept all the changes to files under revision control.

Local version control diagram
Figure 1. Local version control

One of the most popular VCS tools was a system called RCS, which is still distributed with many computers today. RCS works by keeping patch sets (that is, the differences between files) in a special format on disk; it can then re-create what any file looked like at any point in time by adding up all the patches.

Centralized Version Control Systems

The next major issue that people encounter is that they need to collaborate with developers on other systems. To deal with this problem, Centralized Version Control Systems (CVCSs) were developed. These systems (such as CVS, Subversion, and Perforce) have a single server that contains all the versioned files, and a number of clients that check out files from that central place. For many years, this has been the standard for version control.

Centralized version control diagram
Figure 2. Centralized version control

This setup offers many advantages, especially over local VCSs. For example, everyone knows to a certain degree what everyone else on the project is doing. Administrators have fine-grained control over who can do what, and it’s far easier to administer a CVCS than it is to deal with local databases on every client.

However, this setup also has some serious downsides. The most obvious is the single point of failure that the centralized server represents. If that server goes down for an hour, then during that hour nobody can collaborate at all or save versioned changes to anything they’re working on. If the hard disk the central database is on becomes corrupted, and proper backups haven’t been kept, you lose absolutely everything — the entire history of the project except whatever single snapshots people happen to have on their local machines. Local VCS systems suffer from this same problem — whenever you have the entire history of the project in a single place, you risk losing everything.

Distributed Version Control Systems

This is where Distributed Version Control Systems (DVCSs) step in. In a DVCS (such as Git, Mercurial, Bazaar or Darcs), clients don’t just check out the latest snapshot of the files; rather, they fully mirror the repository, including its full history. Thus, if any server dies, and these systems were collaborating via that server, any of the client repositories can be copied back up to the server to restore it. Every clone is really a full backup of all the data.

Distributed version control diagram
Figure 3. Distributed version control

Furthermore, many of these systems deal pretty well with having several remote repositories they can work with, so you can collaborate with different groups of people in different ways simultaneously within the same project. This allows you to set up several types of workflows that aren’t possible in centralized systems, such as hierarchical models.


What is Git

Git is Distirbuted version Control System. 

The Three States(Git Work Flow)

Pay attention now — here is the main thing to remember about Git if you want the rest of your learning process to go smoothly. Git has three main states that your files can reside in: modifiedstaged, and committed:

  • Modified means that you have changed the file but have not committed it to your database yet.

  • Staged means that you have marked a modified file in its current version to go into your next commit snapshot.

  • Committed means that the data is safely stored in your local database.

This leads us to the three main sections of a Git project: the working tree, the staging area, and the Git directory.

Working tree, staging area, and Git directory.
Figure 6. Working tree, staging area, and Git directory

The working tree is a single checkout of one version of the project. These files are pulled out of the compressed database in the Git directory and placed on disk for you to use or modify.

The staging area is a file, generally contained in your Git directory, that stores information about what will go into your next commit. Its technical name in Git parlance is the “index”, but the phrase “staging area” works just as well.

The Git directory is where Git stores the metadata and object database for your project. This is the most important part of Git, and it is what is copied when you clone a repository from another computer.

The basic Git workflow goes something like this:

  1. You modify files in your working tree.

  2. You selectively stage just those changes you want to be part of your next commit, which adds only those changes to the staging area.

  3. You do a commit, which takes the files as they are in the staging area and stores that snapshot permanently to your Git directory.

If a particular version of a file is in the Git directory, it’s considered committed. If it has been modified and was added to the staging area, it is staged. And if it was changed since it was checked out but has not been staged, it is modified

Git Commonly used commands

Raman is a user and he wants to set his username and email address for git commit. 

$ git config --global user.name "raman"
$ git config --global user.email raman@example.com

Raman is working on a new project called "my_project" and he wants to maintain all the changes to the code on his local system.


first, create an empty directory my_project and then change your working directory as my_project
$ mkdir /home/ubuntu/my_project
$ cd /home/ubuntu/my_project
Initialize this directory as git working directory

$ git init
It will create a hidden directory called .git, which has files and folders related to your local repository.

$ ls -la
Raman wants to store the project files in the local git repository.


Let's first create some files in "my_project" dir
$ touch 1.txt 2.txt 3.txt 4.txt
Add 1.txt into stage with "git add <<filename>>" command.
$ git add 1.txt
$ git status
$ git commit -m " 1.txt" is added
$ git status
$ git add . 
$ git status
$ git commit -m " 2.txt, 3.txt, 4.txt files are added"

Remove file 1.txt from git repository and delete it permanently

$ git rm 1.txt
Restore 1.txt file again to git repository.
$ git reset --hard

Add a new file 5.txt to my_project directory and add to Staging and then remove it from staging and move back to untracked list

$ touch 5.txt
$ git add 5.txt
$ git status
$ git rm --cached 5.txt
$ git status

Raman wants to ignore some exe files to be the part of version control system.

For that create a file called .gitignore and store the file names in sepreate lines which you want to ignore.
eg 1.exe
     *.pyc

Raman wants to list out all commits for the current branch
$ git log
If you want to amend the message for the previous commit

$ git log --amend
If you want to add a track to your version then you can use git tag command

$ git tag <<version number>>
Raman wants to push local repository to Remote Repository (GitHub)

First, you should create an account on Github and then create a new repostiory(DemoRepo)


Then run following command to connect to your remote repo( we need to copy the git hub repo url)
$ git remote add origin <<url>>
Now push your local repository to Github Repo 

$ git push origin master
All the files should be available on DemoRepo as well.

To push all the tags

$ git push origin --tags

New developer Manoj has joined the project and wants a copy of the project.

On Manoj's machine he has to run the git clone command
$ git clone <<url>>
A new file(6.txt) is added in DemoRepo on Github, How can I pull the changes to my local repo.

$ git pull origin master

Git Branching

Branching means you diverge from the main line of development and continue to do work without messing with that main line.



1.Create a directory called merge_test and intialize git into it, then create 1.txt and do commit after that create    2.txt and commit that as well.  
2. Write following commands git log , git log --graph, git log --graph --pretty=oneline  
3. create a branch test and checkout to test branch.  
4. Create a file 3.txt in test branch commit it.Create 4.txt and commit it  
5. checkout to branch master and create a file 5.txt and commit the changes.  
6. merge master branch with test branch using git merge test , check the git log  
7 create a directory rebase-merge and initialize git and create 1.txt and commit it.  
8 Create a branch test and create file 2.txt and commit in test branch.  
9.Create a file 3.txt in master branch and commit it  
10 checkout to test and now merge the data of master to test using git rebase master  
11. checkout to master and merge with test branch using git merge test.36.Create a directory called merge_test and intialize git into it, then create 1.txt and do commit after that create 2.txt and commit that as well.  
12. Write following commands git log , git log --graph, git log --graph --pretty=oneline  
13. create a branch test and checkout to test branch.  
14. Create a file 3.txt in test branch commit it.Create 4.txt and commit it  
15. checkout to branch master and create a file 5.txt and commit the changes.  
16. merge master branch with test branch using git merge test , check the git log  
17 create a directory rebase-merge and initialize git and create 1.txt and commit it.  
18 Create a branch test and create file 2.txt and commit in test branch.  
19.Create a file 3.txt in master branch and commit it  
20 checkout to test and now merge the data of master to test using git rebase master  
21. checkout to master and merge with test branch using git merge test.


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Git Version Control system-With Commands
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